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Stuttering (stammering) is common in young children. For many, stuttering resolves by age five but for others it may be an ongoing condition. It is a form of ‘dysfluency’ or interruption in the flow of speech. The first signs of stuttering may appear between the ages of 18-24 months old when there is a burst of language development. It may manifest as:
The Achilles tendon attaches the gastrocnemius, the soleus and plantaris muscles to the calcaneus. It is one of the longest and thickest tendons in the body and is a powerful plantar flexor of the foot and ankle.
Sports-related head injuries and concussion can be difficult to assess and manage.
Gout is one of the most common forms of acute arthritis, particularly among Māori and Pacific men as well as older people on diuretic therapy. While acute gout is reasonably well managed, prevention of long term gout and its complications, tophi, skin ulceration, chronic joint damage, renal and cardiovascular disease is not.
Acute low back pain is common and can occur without any definite event or injury. Back pain is second only to URTI in terms of days lost from work due to illness or injury. There are a large number of causes of low back pain and a definitive structural diagnosis is possible in less than 10% of patients.  
Shoulder instability is a relatively common injury. The incidence of traumatic shoulder instability in the athletic population is approximately two times greater than in the general population, especially amongst those involved in contact or overhead sports.
Shoulder injuries are common in primary care and can be difficult to correctly diagnose and manage. The shoulder is a mobile joint and vulnerable to injury from sport, falls, and overhead work.
The term “female athlete triad” has been used for several decades to describe an association between disordered eating, an irregular menstrual cycle and impaired bone health.
Patellofemoral pain is a common presentation in primary care. It is most commonly seen in those below the age of forty years; however, it can affect people of all ages and activity levels. In adolescents, the onset of pain can coincide with periods of accelerated growth, while in older patients it often co-exists with degenerative joint changes.
Acute knee injuries are common, especially in sports that involve twisting movements and sudden changes of direction such as netball, football, basketball and skiing.

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