Sports medicine

Rotator cuff: acute injuries

Rotator cuff pathology comprises a wide range of different problems. At one end of the spectrum is a patient with acute rotator impingement. These patients may have an anatomically normal rotator cuff and have symptoms which have been provoked by an acute bout of activity. In this situation the problem will generally settle with a short period of rest.

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Patellofemoral pain is a common presentation in primary care. It is most commonly seen in those below the age of forty years; however it can affect people of all ages and activity levels. In adolescents the onset of pain can coincide with periods of accelerated growth, while in older patients it often co-exists with degenerative joint changes.

The term ‘patellofemoral syndrome’ is usually reserved to describe the younger patient with an anatomically normal (or near normal) knee.

Shoulder instability

Shoulder instability is a relatively common injury. The incidence of traumatic shoulder instability in the athletic population is approximately two times greater than in the general population, especially amongst those involved in contact or overhead sports. Instability can be due to acute trauma, repetitive microtrauma or related to congenital issues like generalised laxity. 

Knee injuries: acute management

Acute knee injuries are common, especially in sports that involve twisting movements and sudden changes of direction such as netball, football, basketball and skiing.

Shoulder injuries: acute management

Shoulder injuries are common in primary care and can be difficult to correctly diagnose and manage. The shoulder is a mobile joint and vulnerable to injury from sport, falls, and overhead work. Common shoulder injuries include: rotator cuff tendinopathy or tear, rotator cuff impingement, capsular stiffness, glenohumeral instability or dislocation, muscular tears, or acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) sprains. 

Relative energy deficiency (RED-S): recognition & management

The term “female athlete triad” has been used for several decades to describe an association between disordered eating, an irregular menstrual cycle and impaired bone health. While disordered eating and low energy availability clearly has an effect on a woman’s menstrual cycle and bone health, almost every system in the body can also be involved. It can affect metabolic rate, immunity and protein synthesis as well as cardiovascular and psychological health.

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